Table of Contents

Part I Introduction

1 Philosophical Foundations, Definitions, and Measures 5
1 Happiness Is Both a Philosophical and Psychological Concept 5
2 Happiness as a Strong and Universal Motive 6
3 Bentham Versus Aristotle 6
4 Three Philosophical Views of Happiness 7
4.1 Psychological Happiness (Hedonic or Emotional Well-Being) 7
4.2 Prudential Happiness (Life Satisfaction or the Cognitive Component of Subjective Well-Being) 13
4.3 Perfectionist Happiness (Eudaimonia or Psychological Well-Being) 18
5 Conclusion 23
References 23

2 Further Distinctions Among Major Subjective QOL Concepts 31
1 Subjective Versus Objective QOL 31
2 Inputs Versus Outcomes of QOL 33
3 Inner Versus Outer Aspects of QOL 34
4 Happiness Versus Life Satisfaction 35
5 Subjective Well-Being as an Umbrella Concept 36
5.1 Cognitive Versus Affective 38
5.2 Positive Versus Negative 39
5.3 Short Term Versus Long Term 40
6 Subjective Well-Being Versus Eudaimonia 40
7 Subjective Well-Being Versus Psychological Well-Being 41
8 Summary 41
References 42

3 Consequences of Hedonic Well-Being, Life Satisfaction, and Eudaimonia 45
1 QOL Effects on Health 45
2 QOL Effects on Achievement and Work 48
3 QOL Effects on Social Relationships, Prosocial Behavior, Trust, and Future Happiness 51
4 How Much Happiness Is Optimal? 52
5 Happiness Is Adaptive 53
6 Summary 55
References 55

Part II Objective Reality and Its Effects on Subjective QOL

4 Effects of Socioeconomic, Political, Cultural, and Other Macro Factors on QOL 63
1 A Theoretical Model Linking Socioeconomic, Political, and Cultural Factors with QOL 63
2 Macro Effects on QOL 65
2.1 Economic Effects on QOL 65
2.2 Political Effects on QOL 70
2.3 Sociocultural Effects on QOL 72
3 Summary 76
References 76

5 Effects of Income and Wealth on Subjective QOL 81
1 Effect of Wealth on Subjective QOL: Individual Level and Short Term 81
2 Effect of Wealth on Subjective QOL: Individual Level and Long Term 85
3 Effect of Wealth on Subjective QOL: National Level and Short Term 86
4 Effect of Wealth on Subjective QOL: National Level and Long Term 88
5 Conclusion 90
References 91

6 Effects of Other Demographic Factors on Subjective QOL 95
1 Effects of Age 95
2 Effects of Gender 97
3 Effects of Marital Status, Family Composition, and Family Life Cycle 98
4 Effects of Education 100
5 Effects of Work-Related Demographics 102
6 Effects of Community-Related Demographics 103
7 Effects of Ethnicity and Minority Status 103
8 Effects of Religious Affiliation 104
9 Summary 104
References 105

7 Effects of Personal Activities on Subjective QOL 109
1 QOL Theories Related to Activities 109
1.1 Classical Conditioning 109
1.2 Activity 110
1.3 Flow 111
1.4 Personal Expressiveness 111
2 Effects of Specific Activities on QOL 113
2.1 Social Activities 113
2.2 Leisure and Recreation Activities 114
2.3 Spiritual and Community Activities 115
2.4 Economic Activities 117
3 Conclusion 118
References 118

8 Effects of Genetics, Health, Biology, the Environment, and Drugs on Subjective QOL 123
1 Effects of Genetics 123
2 Effects of Health Factors 124
3 Effects of Biological/Physiological Factors 126
4 Effects of the Physical Environment 127
5 Effects of Drugs and Substance Abuse 128
6 Toward an Integration of Neurochemical Concepts Related to Subjective QOL 130
7 Toward an Integration of Concepts Related to the Brain Reward Center 132
8 Summary 134
References 135

Part III Subjective Reality and Its Effects on Subjective QOL

9 Effects of Personality on Subjective QOL 141
1 Which Personality Traits Affect Subjective QOL? 141
1.1 Neuroticism and Extraversion 141
1.2 Self-Esteem 142
1.3 Affective Disposition 143
1.3 Affective Disposition 143
1.4 Mindfulness 143
1.5 Character Strengths 145
1.6 Other Personality Traits 146
2 Theories Explaining How Personality Influences Subjective QOL 147
2.1 Instrumental Theory 147
2.2 Temperament Theory 147
2.3 Top-Down Theory 148
2.4 Set-Point Theory 149
2.5 Genotype Theory of Happiness 150
3 Summary 150
References 151

10 Effects of Affect and Cognition on Subjective QOL 155
1 Mood 155
2 Causal Attribution 156
3 Appraisals 157
4 Personal Meaning 159
5 Habituation 161
6 Cognitive Frames 161
7 Summary 162
References 163

11 Effects of Beliefs and Values on Subjective QOL 165
1 Effects of Generalized Beliefs on Subjective QOL 165
1.1 Effects of Positive Views 165
1.2 Effects of Trust 166
1.3 Effects of Forgiveness and Gratitude 166
1.4 Effects of Political Persuasion 167
1.5 Effects of Religious Beliefs 167
1.6 Effects of Social Axioms 168
2 Effects of Personal Values on Subjective QOL 168
2.1 Effects of Individualism-Collectivism Orientation 171
2.2 Effects of Secularism 172
2.3 Effects of Materialism 172
3 Summary 174
References 174

12 Effects of Needs and Need Satisfaction on Subjective QOL 179
1 Concepts and Theories 179
1.1 Needs for Having, Loving, and Being 179
1.2 Needs for Being, Belonging, and Becoming 180
1.3 Physical, Social, and Self-Actualization Needs 180
1.4 The Need for Self-Determination 183
1.5 The Needs for a Pleasant Life, an Engaged Life, and a Meaningful Life 185
1.6 The Human Need for Flourishing 187
1.7 The Need for a Life Purpose 188
2 Summary 189
References 189

13 Effects of Goals on Subjective QOL 191
1 Goal Valence 192
1.1 Effects of Meaningful Goals 192
1.2 Effects of Intrinsic Versus Extrinsic Goals 193
1.3 Effects of Abstract Versus Concrete Goals 193
1.4 Effects of Hygiene Versus Motivational Goals 194
1.5 Effects of Approach Versus Avoidance Goals 194
1.6 Effects of Goals Related to Deprived Versus Nondeprived Needs 195
1.7 Effects of Autonomous Versus Nonautonomous Goals 196
1.8 Effects of Goals Related to Flow 196
2 Goal Expectancy 197
2.1 Effects of Adaptable Versus Nonadaptable Goals 197
2.2 Effects of Goals That Are Congruent Versus Noncongruent with Cultural Norms 199
2.3 Effects of Goals That Are Congruent Versus Noncongruent with Personal Motives 200
2.4 Effects of Goals That Are Congruent Versus Noncongruent with Personal Resources 201
2.5 Effects of Goals That Are Realistic Versus Nonrealistic 201
2.6 Effects of Goal Conflict 202
3 Goal Implementation and Attainment 202
3.1 Effects of Goal Commitment 204
3.2 Effects of Recognition of Goal Attainment 205
3.3 Effects of Concrete Thinking 205
3.4 Effects of Perceived Goal Progress 205
4 Summary 206
References 206

14 Effects of Self-Concept on Subjective QOL 211
1 Self-Concept Theory 212
2 Effects of Various Self-Concept Dimensions 213
2.1 The Ideal Self 213
2.2 The Social Self 214
2.3 The Deserved Self 215
2.4 The Minimum-Needs Self 216
2.5 The Predicted Self 216
2.6 The Competent Self 217
2.7 The Aspired Self 218
2.8 Self-Concept Integration 218
3 Summary 219
References 219

15 Effects of Social Comparisons on Subjective QOL 223
1 Impact of Social Comparisons 223
2 Motivational Sources of Social Comparisons 224
2.1 Self-Enhancement 225
2.2 Self-Improvement 227
2.3 Self-Identification 228
2.4 Fictitious Occurrences 229
2.5 Integration of Social Comparison Judgments 229
3 Summary 230
References 231

Part IV Life Domains

16 Domain Dynamics 237
1 Life Domain Effects on QOL 237
2 Life Domain Theories 240
2.1 Bottom-Up Spillover Theory 240
2.2 Horizontal Spillover Theory 246
2.3 Segmentation Theory 249
2.4 Compensation Theory 249
2.5 Balance Theory 253
3 Summary and Conclusion 261
References 263

17 Work Well-Being 269
1 What Is Work Well-Being? 269
1.1 Work Well-Being as Meaningful Work 270
1.2 Work Well-Being as an Affective Response Toward the Work Environment 270
1.3 Work Well-Being as Ratio of Positive and Negative Affect Experienced at Work 271
1.4 Work Well-Being as Need Satisfaction Through Organizational Resources 271
1.5 Work Well-Being as Satisfaction in Work Life 272
1.6 Work Well-Being Is a Component of the Broader Employee Well-Being Concept 273
1.7 Job-Specific Well-Being and Context-Free Well-Being 274
1.8 The European Commission Definition of Quality of Work 274
2 Does Work Well-Being Contribute Significantly to Subjective QOL, and If So How? 275
2.1 Domain Satisfaction Theories 276
2.2 Role Theories 279
2.3 Resource Theories 281
2.4 Ego-Involvement Theories 282
2.5 Human Development Theories 283
2.6 Goal Theories 284
3 What Are Other Consequences of Work Well-Being? 285
4 What Are the Predictors of Work Well-Being and Subjective QOL? 286
4.1 The Work Environment 287
4.2 Employee Characteristics 290
4.3 Work-Related Behaviors 291
5 Summary 292
References 293

18 Residential Well-Being 303
1 What Is Residential Well-Being? 303
1.1 Gap Between Actual and Desired Housing and Neighborhood Conditions 304
1.2 Residents’ Attitude Toward Their Living Space 304
1.3 Residents’ Feelings of Gratification from Living in a Specific Place 304
1.4 Residents’ Feelings of Satisfaction with the Community at Large 304
1.5 Residents’ Perceptions/Evaluations/Satisfaction of Community Amenities/Services/Conditions 305
1.6 Perceptions and Evaluations of the Community by Planners 305
1.7 Community Pride 308
1.8 Satisfaction with Dwelling Features 308
2 Does Residential Well-Being Play a Significant Role in Subjective QOL? 308
3 Factors Affecting Residential Well-Being and Subjective QOL 310
3.1 Institutional Factors 310
3.2 Social Factors 311
3.3 Environmental Factors 315
3.4 Economic Factors 318
4 Summary 319
References 319

19 Material Well-Being 325
1 What Is Material Well-Being? 325
1.1 Evaluation of One’s Financial Situation 325
1.2 Evaluation of One’s Standard of Living 326
1.3 Feelings of Financial Security 326
1.4 Objective Indicators of Economic Well-Being 327
1.5 Consumers’ Feelings About Major Goods and Services 327
1.6 Satisfaction with Acquisition of Consumer Goods/Services and Possession of Major Consumer Durables 327
1.7 Satisfaction with Specific Categories of Obtained Goods and Services That Are Purchased Through Local Retail Institutions 328
1.8 Satisfaction with Acquisition, Preparation, Possession, Consumption, Maintenance, and Disposal of Materials Goods 328
1.9 Subjective Well-Being Directly Related to a Product’s Benefits 329
2 Effect of Material Well-Being on Subjective QOL 329
3 Explaining the Material Well-Being Effect on QOL 331
3.1 Bottom-Up Spillover 331
3.2 Top-Down Spillover 333
3.3 Compensation 334
3.4 Self-Determination 334
3.5 Values 335
3.6 Need Deprivation 337
3.7 Social Comparison 337
3.8 Adaptation 338
3.9 Gain Versus Loss 339
3.10 Cognitive Association 339
4 Predictors of Material Well-Being and QOL 339
4.1 Objective Financial Circumstances 340
4.2 Materialism and Compulsive Consumption 342
4.3 Consumption Life Cycle 344
4.4 Consumption Life Satisfaction 345
4.5 Demographics 345
5 Summary and Conclusion 346
References 347

20 Social, Family, and Marital Well-Being 353
1 What Is Social, Family, and Marital Well-Being? 353
1.1 Satisfaction with Social Life 353
1.2 Social Adjustment 354
1.3 Social Capital 354
1.4 Social Support 355
1.5 Family Life Quality 355
1.6 Satisfaction with Family Life 356
1.7 Social and Family Functioning 356
1.8 Family QOL 357
1.9 Relationship Happiness 357
1.10 Involvement in and Quality of Romantic Relationship 357
2 Does Social, Family, and Marital Well-Being Contribute Significantly to Subjective QOL? 358
3 Explaining the Social/Family/Marital Well-Being Effect on Subjective QOL 360
3.1 The Need to Belong 360
3.2 Attachment 361
3.3 The Buffering Effect of Family 361
3.4 Bottom-Up Spillover 362
3.5 Horizontal Spillover 362
3.6 Compensation 362
3.7 Mattering 363
4 Effects of Social/Family/Marital Well-Being on Other Health Outcomes 364
5 Predictors of Social, Family, and Marital Well-Being and Subjective QOL 364
5.1 Social and Family-Related Factors 364
5.2 Individual Difference Factors 366
5.3 Factors Dealing with Conflict Between Family and Work 368
6 Summary 372
References 373

21 Health Well-Being 381
1 What Is Health Well-Being? 381
1.1 Successful Adjustment to Illness 381
1.2 Good Functional Status 382
1.3 Perceptions of Low Illness Symptoms 384
1.4 Satisfaction with Personal Health 384
1.5 Positive Mood and Affect 385
1.6 Satisfaction with Personal Health and Related Life Domains 385
2 Does Health Well-Being Contribute Significantly to Subjective QOL? 387
3 Explaining the Health Well-Being Effect on Subjective QOL 387
3.1 Bottom-Up Spillover Theory 388
3.2 Homeostatic Control Theory 388
4 Predictors of Health Well-Being and Subjective QOL 389
4.1 Personal Health Factors 389
4.2 Health-Care Factors 390
4.3 Psychographics 394
5 Summary 395
References 396

22 Leisure Well-Being 401
1 What Is Leisure Well-Being? 401
1.1 Satisfaction with Leisure Life 401
1.2 Satisfaction with Important Dimensions of Leisure Life 402
1.3 Perceived Recreation Quality 403
1.4 Satisfaction with Leisure Time 403
1.5 Satisfaction with a Specific Leisure Event 403
2 Does Leisure Well-Being Contribute to Subjective QOL? 405
3 Theories Explaining the Link Between Leisure Well-Being and QOL 406
3.1 Physiology and Genetics 406
3.2 Social Motivation 406
3.3 Effectance Motivation 407
3.4 Intrinsic Motivation and Flow 407
3.5 Telic Versus Paratelic States 408
3.6 Sensation Seeking 409
3.7 Activity 409
3.8 Bottom-Up Spillover 409
4 Predictors of Leisure/Subjective Well-Being 410
4.1 Activity Factors 411
4.2 Time Factors 411
4.3 Personality Factors 411
4.4 Situational Factors 412
5 Summary 413
References 414

23 Other Domains Varying in Salience 417
1 Spiritual Well-Being 417
1.1 What Is Spiritual Well-Being? 418
1.2 Does Spiritual Well-Being Affect Subjective Aspects of QOL? 419
1.3 Are There Other Consequences of Spiritual Well-Being? 421
1.4 How Does Spiritual Well-Being Influence Subjective Well-Being? 422
1.5 What Are the Determinants of Spiritual Well-Being and QOL? 423
1.6 Conclusion 424
2 Political and National Well-Being 424
3 Environmental Well-Being 426
4 Educational Well-Being 427
4.1 What Is Educational Well-Being? 427
4.2 What Is the Relationship Between Educational Well-Being and Life Satisfaction? 429
4.3 What Are Possible Sources of Educational Well-Being? 430
5 Sexual Well-Being 431
6 Summary 432
References 433

Part V Population Segments and QOL

24 Children, Youth, and College Students and QOL 441
1 What Is QOL for Children, Youth, and College Students? 441
1.1 QOL of Children of Preschool Age 441
1.2 QOL of Children of Elementary School Age 442
1.3 QOL of Children of Middle School Age 442
1.4 QOL of Adolescents 445
1.5 QOL of College Students 445
2 Explaining Subjective Well-Being Among Children and Youth 446
2.1 Social Development Theory 446
2.2 Attachment Theory 447
2.3 Ecological Theory 447
3 Factors Affecting the QOL of Children, Youth, and College Students 448
3.1 Situational Factors 449
3.2 Personality Factors 449
3.3 Psychographic Factors 453
3.4 Social Factors 456
3.5 Socioeconomic and Sociocultural Factors 459
4 Indicators of Children’s Well-Being 460
5 Summary 460
References 463

25 Elderly and QOL 469
1 What Is QOL for the Elderly? 469
1.1 Global Judgments of Life Satisfaction 470
1.2 Affective and Cognitive Judgments of Well-Being 472
1.3 Satisfaction of Salient Life Domains 472
1.4 Satisfaction of Needs Salient to the Elderly 474
2 Factors Affecting the QOL of the Elderly 477
2.1 Effects of Health-Related Factors 477
2.2 Effects of Personal Values 478
2.3 Effects of Social Factors 479
2.4 Effects of Socioeconomic Factors 481
2.5 Effects of Residential Factors 482
3 Summary 482
References 483

26 The QOL of Women 487
1 What Is QOL for Women? 487
2 QOL of Women 488
3 Explaining Women’s QOL 489
3.1 A Biological Explanation 489
3.2 A Psychological Explanation 490
3.3 A Cultural Explanation 490
3.4 A Psychographic Explanation 491
3.5 A Health-Care Explanation 491
3.6 A Socioeconomic Explanation 492
3.7 A Social Role Explanation 492
4 What Are Important Factors That Influence Women’s QOL? 492
4.1 Family and Cultural Factors 493
4.2 Economic and Work-Related Factors 494
4.3 Residential Factors 495
4.4 Sexual and Relationship Factors 497
4.5 Health-Related Factors 498
4.6 Factors Related to the Feminist Movement 498
5 Summary 499
References 500

27 The QOL of Countries 503
1 Comparative Analysis 503
2 Country-Specific Well-Being 505
2.1 China 505
2.2 Japan 507
2.3 South Korea 507
2.4 Hong Kong 508
2.5 Singapore 509
2.6 Taiwan 510
3 Summary 511
References 512

28 Other Population Segments 515
1 The QOL of the Disabled 515
2 The QOL of Drug Addicts 516
3 The QOL of Prostitutes 516
4 The QOL of Emergency Personnel 518
5 The QOL of Immigrants 519
6 The QOL of Teachers 520
7 The QOL of Caregivers 521
8 Summary 522
References 523

Part VI Epilogue

29 Integrative Theories of QOL 529
1 Livability Theory 529
2 Capability Theory 531
3 Stocks and Flows 532
4 The Joyless Economy 534
5 Quality of the Person + Environment 534
6 Homeostasis 535
7 QOL = Happiness, Life Satisfaction, and Absence of Ill-Being 536
8 The Bidirectional Spillover Model 537
9 Dynamic Well-Being 538
10 Ontological Well-Being and the 3P Model 539
11 The Psychology of QOL 540
12 Summary 549
References 552

30 Final Thoughts 555
1 Public Policy Issues 555
2 The Need to Broaden Our View 558
2.1 Happiness Maximization Is Not Enough 558
2.2 The Shortfall of Happiness Research at the Country Level 559
2.3 The Need to Conjoin Subjective Aspects of QOL with Objective Conditions 560
2.4 Conjoining Personal Happiness with Objective/Macrolevel Indicators of Societal Well-Being 561
3 Concluding Remarks 562
4 Summary 566
References 567

Appendix: Measurement Issues 569
1 Examples of Life Satisfaction Measures Employed in Large-Scale National Surveys 569
1.1 The Eurobarometer 569
1.2 American Changing Lives 570
1.3 The British Household Panel Survey 570
1.4 The Canadian General Social Survey 570
1.5 The European Social Values Survey 571
1.6 The German Socio-Economic Panel Survey 571
1.7 The Household Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia Survey 571
1.8 The Hungarian Household Panel Survey 571
1.9 The International Social Survey Programme 572
1.10 The Latino Barometer 572
1.11 The Midlife in the US Survey 572
1.12 The National Child Development Survey 572
1.13 The National Survey of Families and Households in the USA 573
1.14 The Social Capital Community Benchmark Survey in the USA 573
1.15 The Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey 573
1.16 The Swedish Level of Living Survey 573
1.17 The Swiss Household Panel Survey 574
1.18 The US General Social Survey 574
1.19 The World Values Survey 574
1.20 The Chinese General Social Survey 574
2 Measurement Caveats 574
2.1 Memory Biases 575
2.2 Biases Related to Situational Influences 576
2.3 Biases Related to Interview or Questionnaire Format 576
2.4 Biases Related to Standard of Comparison 577
2.5 Biases Related to Scaling Effects 577
2.6 Biases Related to Mood 577
2.7 Temporal Stability Problems 578
2.8 Biases Related to Social Desirability 579
3 In Defense of Self-Reports and Global Measures of Life Satisfaction 579
References 581

Author Index 585

Subject Index 611